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How to get dots in Latex \ldots,\cdots,\vdots and \ddots

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How to define horizontal, vertical and diagonal dots \ldots,\cdots,\vdots and \ddots

To define dots in Latex, use:

- \ ldots for horizontal dots on the line
- \ cdots for horizontal dots above the line
- \ vdots for vertical dots
- \ ddots for diagonal dots

Here are examples:

$$ \Sigma=\left[ \begin{array}{ccc} \sigma_{11} & \cdots & \sigma_{1n} \\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ \sigma_{n1} & \cdots & \sigma_{nn} \end{array} \right] $$

$$
\Sigma=\left[
\begin{array}{ccc}
  \sigma_{11} & \cdots & \sigma_{1n} \\
  \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\
  \sigma_{n1} & \cdots & \sigma_{nn}
\end{array}
\right]
$$

$$\forall p=1,\ldots,n.$$

$$\forall p=1,\ldots,n.$$

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